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HubBucket Space Sciences ("HUB-SPACE") is a division of HubBucket Inc ("HubBucket").

What is Space Science?

Space Science is a field that encompasses all of the Scientific Disciplines that involve Space Exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as Space Medicine and Astrobiology.

Some of the many branches of Space Sciences include but are not limited to Astronomy, Astrophysics, Computational Astrophysics, Plasma Astrophysics, Space Physics, Stellar Astronomy, Galatic Astronomy, Extragalactic Astronomy, Cosmology, Physical Cosmology, Chemical Cosmology, Planetary Science, Planetary Oceanography, Exoplanetology, Astrochemistry, Astrobiology, Space Biology, Space Chemistry, Astrobotany, Archaeoastronomy, Space Archaeology, Forensic Astronomy, Theoretical Astronomy, Photometry, Spectroscopy, Observational Astronomy (Ground-based and Space-based Observatories), Radio Astronomy, Submillmetre Astronomy, Infrared Astronomy, Optical Astronomy, High-Energy Astronomy, Cosmic Ray Astronomy, X-ray Astronomy, Gamma-ray Astronomy, Neutrino (Neutrinos) Astronomy, Gravitational Wave (Gravitons) Astronomy, etc.

Space Exploration is the use of Astronomy and Space Technology to explore outer space. While the exploration of space is currently carried out mainly by Astronomers with Telescopes, its physical exploration is conducted both by Uncrewed Robotic Space Probes and Human Spaceflight. Space Exploration, like its classical form Astronomy, is one of the main sources for Space Science.

While the observation of objects in space, known as Astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, national prestige, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of Humanity (our Human Species / Modern Humans also known as Homo Sapiens), and developing military and strategic advantages against other countries.

The early era of space exploration was driven by a "Space Race" between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA). A driving force of the start of space exploration was during the Cold War. After the ability to create nuclear weapons, the narrative of defense/offense left land and the power to control the air became the focus. Both the Soviet and the U.S. were fighting to prove their superiority in technology through exploring the unknown: space. In fact, the reason NASA was made was due to the response of Sputnik I. The launch of the first human-made object to orbit Earth, the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957, and the first Moon landing by the American Apollo 11 mission on 20 July 1969 are often taken as landmarks for this initial period. The Soviet space program achieved many of the first milestones, including the first living being in orbit in 1957, the first Human spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1) in 1961, the first spacewalk (by Alexei Leonov) on 18 March 1965, the first automatic landing on another celestial body in 1966, and the launch of the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971. After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the NASA Space Shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station (ISS).

With the substantial completion of the International Space Station (ISS) following STS-133 in March 2011, plans for space exploration by the United States of America (USA) remained in flux. Constellation, a Bush Administration program for a return to the Moon by 2020 was judged unrealistic by an expert review panel reporting in 2009. The Obama Administration proposed a revised Constellation in 2010 to focus on crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), extending the operation of the International Space Station (ISS) beyond 2020, transferring development of crewed launch vehicles to the private sector, and developing technology for missions beyond LEO. Constellation ultimately was replaced with the Artemis Program, of which the first mission occurred in 2022, with a planned crewed landing to occur with Artemis 3.

In the 2000s, China initiated a successful crewed spaceflight program while India launched the Chandrayaan program, while the European Union and Japan have also planned future crewed space missions. The two primary global programs gaining traction in the 2020s are the Chinese-led International Lunar Research Station and the US-led Artemis Program, with its plan to build the Lunar Gateway, each having its own set of international partners.

Deep Space Exploration

Deep Space Exploration is the branch of Astronomy, Astronautics and Space Technology that is involved with the exploration of distant regions of outer space. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by Human spaceflights (Deep-Space Astronautics) and by Robotic Spacecraft.

Some of the best candidates for future Deep Space Engine Technologies include Anti-Matter, Nuclear Power and Beamed Propulsion. The latter, Beamed Propulsion, appears to be the best candidate for Deep Space Exploration presently available, since it uses known Physics and known technology that is being developed for other purposes.

NASA's Artemis Lunar Mission Space Program

The Artemis program is an ongoing crewed spaceflight program carried out by NASA, U.S. commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. Artemis would be the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually sending humans to Mars.

In 2017, the lunar campaign was authorized by Space Policy Directive 1, utilizing various ongoing spacecraft programs such as Orion, the Lunar Gateway, Commercial Lunar Payload Services, and adding an undeveloped crewed lander. The Space Launch System will serve as the primary launch vehicle for Orion, while commercial launch vehicles are planned for use to launch various other elements of the campaign. NASA requested $1.6 billion in additional funding for Artemis for fiscal year 2020, while the Senate Appropriations Committee requested from NASA a five-year budget profile which is needed for evaluation and approval by Congress.

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST or "Webb")

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST or "Webb") is a space telescope that is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. The JWST provides greatly improved resolution and sensitivity over the Hubble, and enables a broad range of investigations across the fields of Astronomy and Cosmology, including observing some of the most distant events and objects in the Universe, such as the formation of the first galaxies. Other goals include understanding the formation of stars and planets, and direct imaging of Exoplanets and Supernovas.

The primary mirror of the James Webb Space Telescope, the Optical Telescope Element, is composed of 18 hexagonal mirror segments made of gold-plated beryllium which combine to create a 6.5-meter (21 ft; 260 in) diameter mirror that is much larger than the Hubble's 2.4-meter (7.9 ft; 94 in) mirror. Unlike the Hubble, which observes in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared (0.1 to 1 μm) spectra, the JWST will observe in a lower frequency range, from long-wavelength visible light through mid-infrared (0.6 to 27 μm), which will allow it to observe high redshift objects that are too old and too distant for the Hubble to observe.[58] The telescope must be kept very cold in order to observe in the infrared without interference, so it will be deployed in space near the Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point, and a large sunshield made of silicon- and aluminum-coated Kapton will keep its mirror and instruments below 50 K (−220 °C; −370 °F).

The Commercialization of Space in the 21st Century

The Commercialization of Space first started out with the launching of private satellites by NASA or other space agencies. Current examples of the commercial satellite use of space include satellite navigation systems, satellite television and satellite radio. The next step of commercialization of space was seen as Human spaceflight. Flying humans safely to and from space had become routine to NASA. Reusable spacecraft were an entirely new engineering challenge, something only seen in novels and films like Star Trek and War of the Worlds. Great names like Buzz Aldrin supported the use of making a reusable vehicle like the NASA Space Shuttle. Aldrin held that reusable spacecraft were the key in making space travel affordable, stating that the use of "passenger space travel is a huge potential market big enough to justify the creation of reusable launch vehicles". How can the public go against the words of one of America's best known heroes in space exploration? After all exploring space is the next great expedition, following the example of Lewis and Clark. Space tourism is the next step reusable vehicles in the commercialization of space. The purpose of this form of space travel is used by individuals for the purpose of personal pleasure.